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Stanley Aryanto și-a dat demisia din funcția (bănuim plicticoasă) de inginer în 2014 și de atunci străbate lumea și prinde cu camera peisaje spectaculoase (exemple)

Fizicianul Robert Lang worked at NASA, where he researched lasers. He has also garnered 46 patents on optoelectronics and even wrote a Ph.D. thesis called “Semiconductor Lasers: New Geometries and Spectral Properties.” But in 2001, Lang left his job in order to pursue a passion he’s had since childhood: origami. In the origami world, Lang is now a legend, and it’s not just his eye-catching, intricate designs that have taken the craft by storm. Some of his work has helped pioneer new ways of applying origami principles to complex real-world engineering problems (exemplu)

Judith Jones

Editor american de carte (1924-2017)

Ma chère Simca, we do know the difference between a tart and a cake.”

Un interviu în engleză, cu 2 ani înainte să moară

Un interviu audio

Am aflat si citit despre ea dupa ce am vazut filmele si documentarele despre sau cu Julia Child, celebra “gospodină” care le-a învățat în anii 60 pe americance să gătescă și să mănânce franțuzește. Dacă nu vă amintiți de unde-i știți numele, poate filmul Julia&Julie, despre bloggerița care s-a pus să gătească 524 de rețete în 365 zile vă aduce aminte. Bine, unele filme pare că o mai dau în bară cu personajele secundare, în căutarea unui naratvi convenabil.

Judith Jones e celebră mai ales pentru că a salvat dintr-un teanc de manuscrise respinse gata de aruncat traducerea jurnalului Annei Frank și l-a publicat la editura Doubleday.

Printre scriitorii celebri editați și publicați de ea sunt Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Langston Hughes și John Updike.

A lucrat la editura Knopf, fondată de Blanche (ea însăși o doamnă exterm de interesantă) și Alfred Knopf, timp de peste 50 de ani! S-a pensionat la 88 de ani, chiar și numai asta fiind remarcabil

Însă o parte hazlie din cariera ei este că a editat unele dintre cele mai prizate cărți de bucate din America (începând cu The Mastering Art of French Cooking a susnumitei Julia Child scrisă împreună cu amicele din Franța Simone Beck, and Louisette Bertholle) deși susținea vehement că ea e editoare de cărți serioase. A abordat și tratat cărțile de bucate cu aceeași seriozitate și rigurozitate cu care aborda marii scriitori.

For a long time, the women — and they were usually women — who wrote about food were treated as second-class citizens. All because they cook! I think that’s opened up. A good writer gets some good assignments, and they’re treated better somehow. It just takes time

A sfârșit prin a scrie ea însăși cărți de bucate (una despre cum să gătești pentru o singură persoană și alta despre cum să gătești mâncare pe care o poți împărți cu câinii tăi).

“Don ‘t let yourself be frightened at the prospect of making an omelet. The more you make, the easier it will be, and it only takes minutes to produce a seductive oval mound of yellow eggs wrapped around a filling that provides just the right complement. An omelet can make a whole meal and is a great receptacle for whatever little bits of things you’ve stored in your fridge. So I’ll give only proportions and suggestions for various fillings, not specific directions for preparing each one. That way, you can use mine as guidelines to make your own. It is important to have a good nonstick omelet pan. Mine is 6 1/2 inches in diameter at the base and 8 inches across the top, the size I like for a two-egg omelet, and I reserve it for only that purpose. If you prefer a slightly thinner, more spread-out omelet, get a pan with an 8-inch bottom diameter”

Ingredients: 3 tablespoons filling, 2 teaspoons butter, 2 large eggs, salt and freshly ground pepper. If the filling you plan to use is cooked, either heat it up in the omelet pan with a little butter or olive oil and then turn it out onto a small dish and keep it in a warm spot, or heat it briefly in the microwave. If you’re dealing with raw ingredients that need cooking, use a separate pan, and have everything cooked and ready to go as you start your omelet. When you’re ready, heat the butter in the omelet pan over medium-high heat. Meanwhile, quickly crack the eggs into a small bowl, season with a good pinch of salt and several grindings of pepper, and beat with a fork until the yolks and whites are just blended. The butter in the pan should be hot and sizzling, and as the large bubbles start to subside, you’ll know you’re ready to go. Pour the eggs in, and let them set for just 10 seconds. With the flat of your fork against the bottom of the pan, vigorously move the mass of eggs all around. Let them set again for just another few seconds, and then with the tines of the fork pull the parts of the egg that have set around the rim toward the center, and tilt the pan slightly so that the uncooked, liquidy parts flow onto the bare spots and set. This whole process should take only about 1 minute. Now spoon the filling across the center of the eggs, and give the pan a very firm jerk or two, so that the egg mass at the far edge of the pan flips forward onto the filling (you can nudge it with a spatula if it needs help). Turn the omelet out onto a warm plate, letting the filled part settle on the plate first, and then tilt the pan further and flip the remaining, uncovered part over the top. And, voilá, you have a perfect omelet. And if it isn’t quite perfection, tant pis. Only you will know — and it will taste delicious. Filling ideas: a few leftover cooked asparagus spears cut in quarters and warmed in butter.; leftover cooked spinach or other greens, such as Swiss chard, turnip, or beet greens, warmed in a little olive oil; eggplant, particularly leftover ratatouille; Roasted peppers; mushrooms, sautéed, or use a couple of tablespoons of duxelles; one or two roasted or boiled small potatoes (particularly good with cooked leeks or artichoke hearts or sorrel).; cheeses: a tablespoon of fresh cheese is always a nice complement to any of the above vegetables. Grated aged cheeses like cheddar, Gouda, Cantal, Parmigiano-Reggiano, or a Grana Padano (just look in your cheese bin and see what’s there) are all yummy as an accent with other fillings. Mix and match as you please, or make just a pure cheese omelet, sprinkling some on top as well as using a generous amount as filling; Meaty and fishy accents: Try a little shredded ham or prosciutto, cooked crumbled sausage, roughly chopped chicken livers, creamed chicken, or turkey. For fishy accents, if you have some leftover salmon, flake it and mix with some herbs or a little green sauce; shrimp and scallops, perked up the same way, are also good. Bland fish is disappointing, but smoked fish — salmon, trout, finnan haddie — all make a fine foil for eggs.

Ștefania Mărăcineanu

Răsplata pentru cercetătorul devotat științei nu vine din afară, ci sunt fiorii de fericire pe care îi are la descoperirea adevărului. Acești fiori i-am simțit când, într-un colțișor întunecat din laborator, am văzut prima oară scânteierile date de plumb și când mi-a străfulgerat prin minte că ar putea fi radioactivitate artificială. Aceeași bucurie divină m-a cuprins când am văzut cerul întunecându-se ca prin farmec și ploaia căzând prin simpla acțiune a unei substanțe radioactive

Google Doodle de azi este dedicat chimistei din România care, în anul 1924, își susținea teza de doctorat la Sorbonna, în fața unei comisii al cărei președinte era Marie Curie. Lucrarea, cu care va obține titlul de Doctor în științe fizice cu calificativul Très Honorable, era “Recherches sur la constante du polonium et sur la pénétration dans les mataux” (Cercetări asupra constantei poloniului și penetrării acestuia în metale). „Ne amintim că savanta română, domnișoara Mărăcineanu, a anunțat în 1924 descoperirea radioactivității artificiale” (Irene Curie, fiica savanților Marie și Pierre Curie). În anul 1934, cuplul Frederic și Irene Joliot-Curie comunică Academiei Franceze, printr-un studiu, descoperirea radioactivității artificiale, pentru care cei doi vor primi premiul Nobel. În discursul de primire a premiului, savanta Irene Curie nu va pomeni deloc contribuția savantei din România.

Se năștea pe 18 iunie 1882 iar în registrele de naștere ale Primăriei Sectorului 1 este trecută ca fiica naturală a Sevastei, „menajeră”. La vârsta de 10 ani fetița este înscrisă în foaia matricolă a clasei a IV-a primară a Azilului „Elena Doamna”, ca orfană. A urmat apoi liceul în Bucureşti şi a studiat la Facultatea de Ştiinţe Fizico-Chimice, pe care a absolvit-o în 1910. O vreme a fost profesoară la Şcoala Centrală, iar din 1922, cu ajutorul unei burse, tânăra s-a înscris la cursurile de radioactivitate ţinute de Marie Curie la Institutul Radiului din Paris. În 1930 Ștefania Mărăcineanu s-a întors în România şi a devenit colaboratoarea profesorului Dimitrie Bungenţianu la Universitatea din Bucureşti, creând, cu mijloace proprii, primul Laborator de Radioactivitate din România. S-a îmbolnăvit de cancer, provocat de iradierile la care s-a expus în timpul experimentelor ei, şi a murit pe 15 august 1944, la vârsta de 62 de ani.

După obţinerea doctoratului a lucrat la observatoarele din Mendou şi Paris, unde a demonstrat că plumbul supus mai multe secole radiaţiilor solare a devenit radioactiv. A folosit la experiment bucăţi din acoperişul Observatorului Astronomic parizian, vechi de 300 de ani. S-a ocupat şi de fenomenele meteorologice, reuşind, cu sprijinul profesorilor Bungeţianu şi Vasile Karpen şi al aviatorului Bâzu Cantacuzino, să descopere procedeul de declanşare artificială a ploii cu ajutorul unor săruri radioactive şi să stabilească legătura între cutremure şi precipitaţii: în 1931 a provocat prima ploaie artificială din lume în Bărăgan, continuând cercetările în Algeria, cu sprijinul guvernului francez și a semnalat pentru prima dată că în ajunul producerii unui cutremur creşte radioactivitatea în zona epicentrului.

Leonora Carrington

The Milk of Dream, tema Bienalei Veneția 2022

***

British-Mexican surrealist artist (1912 — 2011). In her teens, Leonora Carrington began constructing her own mythological universe influenced by Celtic legends told by her Irish mother. After running off with Max Ernst, 36 years her senior, she suffered a breakdown and ended up in a Spanish asylum, from which she was rescued by her nanny in a submarine. Carrington had described reading The White Goddess, Robert Graves’s study of poetry and myth, as ‘the greatest revelation of my life.’ She acquired it in 1948, the year it was published, and it was arguably one of the most important books she ever read (along with the teachings of the Kabbalah). She lived in Mexico.

©Photos Stéphane Briolant Paris

“If all the women in the world decide to control the population explosion, reject war, reject sexual or racial discrimination and force men to allow survival in the planet that would be a true miracle”

Leonora Carrington

A scris și The Hearing Trumpet

The Debutante (a short story)

WHEN I was a debutante I often went to the zoological garden. I went so often that I was better acquainted with animals than with the young girls of my age. It was to escape from the world that I found myself each day at the zoo. The beast I knew best was a young hyena. She knew me too. She was extremely intelligent; I taught her French and in return she taught me her language. We spent many pleasant hours in this way.

For the first of May my mother had arranged a ball in my honor. For entire nights I suffered: I had always detested balls, above all those given in my own honor.

On the morning of May first, 1934, very early, I went to visit the hyena. “What a mess of shit,” I told her. “I must go to my ball this evening.”

“You’re lucky,” she said. “I would go happily. I do not know how to dance, but after all, I could engage in conversation.”

“There will be many things to eat,” said I. “I have seen wagons loaded entirely with food coming up to the house.”

“And you complain!” replied the hyena with disgust. “As for me, I eat only once a day, and what rubbish they stick me with!”

I had a bold idea; I almost laughed. “You have only to go in my place.”

“We do not look enough alike, otherwise I would gladly go,” said the hyena, a little sad. “Listen,” said I, “in the evening light one does not see very well. If you were disguised a little, no one would notice in the crowd. Besides, we are almost the same size. You are my only friend; I implore you.”

She reflected upon this sentiment. I knew that she wanted to accept. “It is done,” she said suddenly.

It was very early; not many keepers were about. Quickly I opened the cage and in a moment we were in the street. I took a taxi; at the house, everyone was in bed. In my room, I brought out the gown I was supposed to wear that evening. It was a little long, and the hyena walked with difficulty in my high-heeled shoes. I found some gloves to disguise her hands which were too hairy to resemble mine. When the sunlight entered, she strolled around the room several times—walking more or less correctly. We were so very occupied that my mother, who came to tell me good morning, almost opened the door before the hyena could hide herself under my bed. “There is a bad odor in the room,” said my mother, opening the window. “Before this evening you must take a perfumed bath with my new salts.”

“Agreed,” said I. She did not stay long; I believe the odor was too strong for her. “Do not be late for breakfast,” she said, as she left the room.

The greatest difficulty was to find a disguise for the hyena’s face. For hours and hours we sought an answer: she rejected all of my proposals. At last she said, “I think I know a solution. You have a maid?”

“Yes,” I said, perplexed.

“Well, that’s it. You will ring for the maid and when she enters we will throw ourselves upon her and remove her face. I will wear her face this evening in place of my own.”

“That’s not practical,” I said to her.

“She will probably die when she has no more face; someone will surely find the corpse and we will go to prison.”

“I am hungry enough to eat her,” replied the hyena.

“And the bones?”

“Those too,” she said.

“Then it’s settled?”

“Only if you agree to kill her before removing her face. It would be too uncomfortable otherwise.”

“Good; it’s all right with me.” I rang for Marie, the maid, with a certain nervousness. I would not have done it if I did not detest dances so much. When Marie entered I turned to the wall so as not to see. I admit that it was done quickly. A brief cry and it was over. While the hyena ate, I looked out the window. A few minutes later, she said: “I cannot eat anymore; the two feet are left, but if you have a little bag I will eat them later in the day.”

“You will find in the wardrobe a bag embroidered with fleurs de lys. Remove the handkerchiefs inside it and take it.” She did as I indicated.

At last she said: “Turn around now and look, because I am beautiful!” Before the mirror, the hyena admired herself in Marie’s face. She had eaten very carefully all around the face so that what was left was just what was needed. “Surely, it’s properly done,” said I.

Toward evening, when the hyena was all dressed, she declared: “I am in a very good mood. I have the impression that I will be a great success this evening.” When the music below had been heard for some time, I said to her: “Go now, and remember not to place yourself at my mother’s side: she will surely know that it is not I. Otherwise I know no one. Good luck.” I embraced her as we parted but she smelled very strong.

Night had fallen. Exhausted by the emotions of the day, I took a book and sat down by the open window. I remember that I was reading Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift. It was perhaps an hour later that the first sign of misfortune announced itself. A bat entered through the window, emitting little cries. I am terribly afraid of bats, I hid behind a chair, my teeth chattering. Scarcely was I on my knees when the beating of the wings was drowned out by a great commotion at my door. My mother entered, pale with rage. “We were coming to seat ourselves at the table,” she said, “when the thing who was in your place rose and cried: ‘I smell a little strong, eh? Well, as for me, I do not eat cake.’ With these words she removed her face and ate it. A great leap and she disappeared out the window.”

Țarii Rusiei

In advance of the St Petersburg International Economic Forum, Vladimir Putin met with young entrepreneurs, engineers and scientists.

Spicuiri din discursul oficial (via site-ul oficial al presedentiei ruse):

Petru cel Mare a purtat Marele Război al Nordului timp de 21 de ani. La prima vedere, el se războia cu Suedia luându-i ceva. El nu lua nimic, recupera. Așa a fost. Când a fondat noua capitală, niciuna dintre țările europene nu a recunoscut acest teritoriu ca făcând parte din Rusia; toată lumea l-a recunoscut ca făcând parte din Suedia. Cu toate acestea, din timpuri imemoriale, slavii trăiau acolo împreună cu popoarele fino-ugrice, iar acest teritoriu se afla sub controlul Rusiei. Același lucru este valabil și pentru direcția vestică, Narva și primele sale campanii. De ce ar fi mers acolo? El se întorcea și se întărea, asta făcea. În mod clar, a căzut în sarcina noastră să ne întoarcem și să ne întărim și noi. Pentru a pretinde un fel de leadership – nu mă refer nici măcar la leadership global, mă refer la leadership în orice domeniu – orice țară, orice popor, orice grup etnic ar trebui să-și asigure suveranitatea. Pentru că nu există nici o cale de mijloc, nici un statut intermediar: fie o țară este suverană, fie este o colonie, indiferent cum se numesc coloniile”.

Mai jos transcrierea in engleză.

“I am very happy to see you,

Today, as we see, we are at VDNKh – a large park complex where all of Russia’s best achievements in all major spheres of development have traditionally been presented for decades: achievements that have always been Russia’s pride, that have helped it stay at the leading edge of development. We can say that over the last several decades our country has come a very long way in transformation and change, and this very complex of achievements – VDNKh – shows this progress in Russia.

You are young, but perhaps many of you know that this centre of achievements from Soviet times fell into a state of disrepair and was used for a cheap marketplace, but gradually, as the situation in the country improved, so did VDNKh. And now here we are, reviving the basic idea on which this exhibition centre was founded, which provides a place for you and people like you – young, beautiful, good-looking, smart, creative, and ambitious – to demonstrate your achievements. This is happening on a new basis, but still in a variety of areas.

Our meeting is being held in advance of the St Petersburg International Economic Forum, and I have asked my office and my colleagues from the Government to organise this meeting to hear your ideas on where we are now, where we are going and what we need to do to ensure our absolute and unconditional progress, to make it beneficial for the country and everyone involved in this remarkable process.

And I promise that I will try to respond to all your proposals and ideas. It is easier for me to do this than for you. I just give instructions; you need to come up with ideas, while I just need to listen to you and give instructions. (Laughter.)

This will certainly help me and my colleagues understand how we should organise work at the St Petersburg Economic Forum.

I would like to begin by saying the following. We live in an era of change; this is obvious to everyone; everyone understands and sees this. Geopolitical, scientific and technological transformations are happening. The world is changing, and it is doing so rapidly. In order to claim some kind of leadership – I am not even talking about global leadership, I mean leadership in any area – any country, any people, any ethnic group should ensure their sovereignty. Because there is no in-between, no intermediate state: either a country is sovereign, or it is a colony, no matter what the colonies are called.

I am not going to give any examples so as not to offend anyone, but if a country or a group of countries is not able to make sovereign decisions, then it is already a colony to a certain extent. But a colony has no historical prospects, no chance for survival in this tough geopolitical struggle. There has always been such a struggle (I just want to make it clear); it is not that we are looking at what is happening around us and saying “Wow!” It has always been like that, you see, and Russia has always remained at the forefront of ongoing events.

Yes, there were eras in the history of our country when we had to retreat, but only in order to mobilise and move forward, concentrate and move forward.

Sovereignty, in the modern sense of the word – actually, it has always been like that, but it is particularly clear today – comprises several components.

First, there is military-political sovereignty, and here, no doubt, it is important to be able to make sovereign domestic and foreign policy decisions and to ensure security.

Second is economic sovereignty where the development of the basic sectors of the economy does not depend on anyone in terms of critical technology or matters that underlie the viability of society and the state.

Technical sovereignty and social sovereignty are critically important in today’s world. I am talking about the ability of society to come together to resolve national challenges, to respect history, culture, language, and all the ethnicities that share a single territory. This consolidation of society is one of the core conditions for growth. Without consolidation, things will fall apart.

There may be other components of sovereignty, I gave you the basic ones, and it is clear that all these things are interconnected. I gave you a list of four components. In fact, you could reverse the order and start from the last one and go backwards, and then list them randomly, because one cannot exist without the other. How do you achieve external security without technological capability and technological sovereignty? It is impossible.

We would never have hypersonic weapons if it were not for the capabilities of our science and industry. Never. You understand that fully only when you start dealing with these things directly. So, when we got hypersonic weapons, I asked for a list of developers to give awards to. I have already said this publicly before, but I will tell you again. They brought me a thick folder. I started flipping through it, but I saw that there were no peoples’ names, only names of enterprises, design bureaus and research institutes. Frankly, even I was surprised. I asked the person who brought it to me what it was all about. He said that without even one name on that list, the product would not have been possible. Thousands of people worked on it, see? Thousands. And then I realised the depth and the capabilities of our defence industry.

The same is true of the economy in general. A limping, sneezing and coughing economy is the end of it. What kind of consolidation of society can we then talk about? And if there is no consolidation, there will be nothing else, either.

In order to be able to effectively possess and use all of that, it is necessary to address basic tasks, such as demography, which means healthcare, environment, research, education and upbringing, which is very important.

Some time ago I had a discussion with the Patriarch about education, and he happened to say that even though education was indeed crucial, without proper upbringing we would not succeed at anything, because you can teach a person something, but the question is how they will use their knowledge. Science, education, upbringing, and health care are critically important, because without them demographic issues cannot be resolved, and so on. What about culture? If we do not rely on the basic values of the national cultures of the peoples of Russia, we will not consolidate our society. Without consolidation, everything will fall apart. And the fact that we have to sort of defend ourselves and fight for it is obvious.

We visited the exhibition dedicated to the 350th birth anniversary of Peter the Great. Almost nothing has changed. It is a remarkable thing. You come to this realisation, this understanding.

Peter the Great waged the Great Northern War for 21 years. On the face of it, he was at war with Sweden taking something away from it… He was not taking away anything, he was returning. This is how it was. The areas around Lake Ladoga, where St Petersburg was founded. When he founded the new capital, none of the European countries recognised this territory as part of Russia; everyone recognised it as part of Sweden. However, from time immemorial, the Slavs lived there along with the Finno-Ugric peoples, and this territory was under Russia’s control. The same is true of the western direction, Narva and his first campaigns. Why would he go there? He was returning and reinforcing, that is what he was doing.

Clearly, it fell to our lot to return and reinforce as well. And if we operate on the premise that these basic values constitute the basis of our existence, we will certainly succeed in achieving our goals.

You are experts in your fields, and I want to apologise upfront if I am unable to answer some of your questions. As a matter of fact, I would like to listen to your ideas in order to keep them in mind when organising the St Petersburg Economic Forum rather than turn our meeting into a Q&A session.

I would like to close my lengthy monologue with that and turn the floor over to our moderator. Please go ahead.

<…>

Vladimir Putin(following up on remarks by Polina Morozova, Skoltech postgraduate student and materials chemist who works on developing new-generation K-ion batteries for uninterruptible power supply for fixed systems) The first thing I would like to point out is that you used the term “closed economy.” Our economy will not be closed. We have never had one and never will. If anyone is trying to limit us in any way, they are limiting themselves in the first place.

For the sake of argument – this has nothing to do with you, but nonetheless – they are trying to put limits on our fertiliser exports only to see prices in their countries go up more than here. They tried to limit our energy exports and, again, prices went through the roof. They are already using my name instead of inflation when we have absolutely nothing to do with it. (Laughter.)

Seriously. That is the truth. We have absolutely nothing to do with it. This is the outcome of their mistakes, long-term ones at that, which they talked about every year even before today’s developments. They made these mistakes themselves, and are now – excuse me, ladies – trying to cover a certain part of theirs, trying to turn this around on Russia, claiming that Russia is to blame for everything. We have nothing to do with it. They imposed restrictions and pursued their energy policies for years and decades on end, which led to the current state of affairs. And then they started imposing sanctions and aggravated the situation in these and other areas even more.

Your field is important and promising. Storing and transmitting energy using the latest high-tech methods is the future in the economy in general, in individual industries, and in the defence industry. Are you working on batteries?

Polina Morozova: Yes.

Vladimir Putin: We know what we are talking about: silent submarines and so on. This has an extremely broad range of applications.

In addition to oil and gas, rare earth metals are also here.

Should you need any additional support, we are here to help. The Ministry of Industry and Trade has a programme to support non-resource exports. We will expand these forms of support.

As for “the closed economy” as you said, I would like to say this again that we did not have a closed economy. That is, we had it in Soviet times when we isolated ourselves by creating the so-called Iron Curtain. We created it with our own hands. But we are not going to do this again and fall into the same trap. Our economy will be open. Those who do not want it will steal from themselves. They are already stealing from themselves and creating problems. If they continue following this path, they will just make a bad situation worse.

Yes, we will be short of something because those who are doing this do have certain competitive advantages, especially in modern technology. This is clear. However, the world is big and diverse. You have just mentioned China and India. But why just China and India? What about Latin America? Yes, Africa may be still “asleep” today but it is “waking up.” About 1.5 billion people live there. And what about the whole of Southeast Asia? You should understand that it is impossible to build a fence around such country as Russia from the outside. And we are not going to build such a fence around our country.

But it is certainly necessary to help such start-ups as yours to enter world markets. We will be doing this, even more so since our trade and economic ties with these countries are making steady headway.

I think our trade with China is already US$140 billion. I believe during the past year our trade with China increased by 34 percent and with India by 87 percent. Do you understand? And do you know how much our trade with Turkey has gone up in the first half year? It increased 2.3 times. It is clear why but it has its own problems – high inflation and so on but it is developing and has advantages of its own. If we work with each other and we want to do this, there is only upside. The same is true of BRICS.

Two-thirds of the planet’s population live in the regions I mentioned. Yes, some countries are only taking their first steps in some areas but they are taking them and will continue. Economic growth rates in these countries, in Asia, were about 5 percent, in the United States 1.7 percent and in the Eurozone 1 percent in the past ten years.

We also have our own problems and we are aware of them but we will keep moving rather than hide behind some fence.

But it is necessary to help people like you and we will. I will certainly discuss this with the Government and relevant structures that are in charge of supporting exports in our country. It is necessary to expand this support and we will definitely do so.

<…>

Yury Shilov: This question is frequently asked by young entrepreneurs: what, in your opinion, are three key qualities a leader should possess?

Vladimir Putin: Three qualities… This applies to all walks of life, science, whatever you like, even education and politics.

First, you have to be devoted to your work. I know that, perhaps, many will not like hearing it but, for example, in science, there was a well-known married couple, Marie and Pierre Curie, who sacrificed their health, life, absolutely everything, to achieve something they devoted their lives to. In education, our prominent teachers in the 1930s devoted their lives to children and achieved outstanding results. There were nuclear and rocket projects in our recent history… Sergei Korolev, Igor Kurchatov – they dedicated their lives to what they were doing and, in fact, they lived and breathed it.

This does not mean that you should confine yourselves to living in a sort of box. Clearly, you should have broad knowledge but still, to a certain extent, you should be devoted to your profession and dedicate your lives to it.

Second, flexibility is important and the ability to soundly and objectively assess the results of your work and have respect for people with whom you are trying to achieve goals to which you devoted your lives. Be critical but constructive, and you can mobilise a team.

The ability to work in a team, especially if you lead a team, is a key element of success. That is basically it.

<…>

Vladimir Putin(in response to the remarks by Anna Krasavina, a research fellow of the Dukhov National Automatics Research Institute in charge of developing analogue systems for long-distance fibre-optic data transfer. As a developer, she is concerned over Russian microelectronics) Our Government has been trying for several years to launch or recreate Russia’s microelectronics industry. This is a complicated issue and one of the hardest blows at Russia in this entire array of restrictions.

Actually, it has always been this way since the times of the Peter the Great. The ships he built, the methods of their construction and so on were largely secret in his time. So, Peter went to the West and acquired this knowledge by working as a carpenter. This continued throughout our history. COCOM lists in Soviet times and the like. It was like this even in the best years of our cooperation with our so-called Western partners. Restrictions were preserved. Now they have simply ratcheted them up, and this is one of the main blows. We decided we could sell oil and gas and buy everything cheap. In fact, we funded their work with our cheap energy resources. This is broadly speaking, of course, but it is essentially what happened. And so, owing to these restrictions, we are compelled, thank God, to develop our own engineering schools, including in this area.

I will also take everything you said from the transcript of our conversation today and I will talk to the Prime Minister about this, because he is personally dealing with this problem at my request”